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Arrest And Search Warrants

Arrest warrants are written orders by magistrates that order law enforcement officials to bring a person facing criminal charges before the Court. The purpose of issuing the arrest warrant is to acquire personal jurisdiction over a defendant, which is a required element in a criminal prosecution. Warrants issued for felonies allow the defendant to be brought before the magistrate issuing the order or alternatively to another available county magistrate. Misdemeanor warrants are different in that they require the defendant be taken to solely to the issuing magistrate.

Requirements & Process

Arrest warrants are issued upon a showing of probable cause. Probable cause means that there are sufficient facts to lead a person of ordinary caution to honestly believe that a criminal act has been committed and that the defendant likely committed the crime. The court determines probable cause using the totality of the circumstances standard created in the U.S. Supreme Court case Illinois v. Gates ((1983) 462, US 213). Basically, this standard requires that the magistrate consider all the surrounding circumstances of the event and make a sensible decision as to whether there is a “fair probability” that the crime was committed and the defendant committed the offense.There are cases where no probable cause showing is required. Warrants for failure to post bail or failure to appear are excluded from the probable cause requirement.

The process for obtaining an arrest warrant requires that the law enforcement agency file a complaint (with a sworn statement detailing the crime and belief in defendant's involvement), submit a written declaration showing probable cause, and make a sworn oral declaration of probable cause in the presence of the Court or via telephone. The magistrate is then required to independently analyze the evidence presented to determine if the alleged criminal conduct has been committed and whether there is probable cause that the accused person is the responsible party. If the magistrate is persuaded by the showing, he/she may issue the warrant. However, it is also in the magistrate's discretion to refuse to issue a warrant if the presentation by law enforcement is insufficient.

Once it is decided a warrant will be issued, the magistrate will generally issue the written order on a statutory form as shown in California Penal Codes §1427, 817, and 814. Warrants must contain certain information be valid. A warrant must list the alleged crime committed, the name of the person to be arrested, the time and place of the warrant's issuance, the signature of the issuing magistrate, a bail amount for bailable offenses, and possibly an authorization for nighttime service on misdemeanor warrants.

Execution of Arrest Warrants

When a law enforcement officer receives an arrest warrant, he/she is charged with the responsibility of making the requested arrest. Law enforcement may lawfully execute a warrant that is “proper” on its face. The term “proper” means that the warrant has been issued by a court or court officer with the authority to do so, and nothing about the warrant would cause a reasonable person to doubt its authority.

There are time restraints on how long law enforcement has to execute an arrest warrant. It must be executed within a reasonable time after the filing of the complaint to prevent a violation of the right to a speedy trial.

Misdemeanor warrants are also limited as to what time of day they can be executed.  Misdemeanor warrants must be served within the hours of 6:00 am and 10:00 pm unless there is a nighttime service authorization from the magistrate. This rule will also not apply if the arrest is made in a public the defendant is already in custody of law enforcement, or the arrest doesn't require a warrant because of PC §836 & 837. Felony warrants can be executed at any time of day per PC 840.

Law enforcement may enter your residence to carry out an arrest warrant. Officers may also use force to enter a suspect's residence (for arrest warrant purposes) if they have probable cause the suspect resident is in the home.  However, if the suspect (named in arrest warrant) is merely a guest at someone else's residence, police are required to obtain a search warrant to enter the home.

Once a defendant is arrested, he/she must be taken before the appropriate magistrate without delay. In most cases this means within a 48 hour period except for holidays, Sundays, and whenever the magistrate's court is out of session (PC 825). However, under some circumstances, the court may find an unreasonable delay occurred within the 2 day period. The court in Youngblood v. Gates  held that police may not use unnecessary investigative procedures (such as interrogations or lab/scientific work) that cause delays within the 2 day period. Thus, a same day appearance may be necessary in many cases.

When police execute misdemeanor traffic violation arrest warrants, it is common that the defendant will not be taken into custody and instead will sign a promise to appear per PC 818.

Surrendering Defendant on Warrant

The manner for resolving an outstanding warrant depends on why the warrant was issued. While traffic and parking offense related warrants can be cleared by paying fines, a criminal or failure to appear arrest warrant requires additional procedures. If a defendant is arrested or turns himself/herself in on a criminal case arrest warrant, he/she will be required to pay the bail amount to be released from custody.  Similarly, an arrest warrant for a failure to appear requires that the criminal defense attorney appear before the issuing judge to contest the failure to appear or arrange for the bail amount.

Challenges to Arrest Warrants

·Invalid Arrest Warrant: a criminal case WILL NOT be dismissed on the basis of an invalid arrest warrant.

·Unlawful Service of an Arrest Warrant: A defendant could move to suppress any evidence obtained against him as a Fourth Amendment violation People v. McKay (2002) 27 C4th 601. However, the underlying criminal case will not be dismissed solely because of an unlawful arrest.

An example of unlawful service of an arrest warrant would be if a misdemeanor arrest warrant was executed at 11:00 pm without nighttime service authorization or a public place exception.

Summons

A summons is a request by the court that a party appear voluntarily instead of being arrested. The format of a summons is essentially the same as that for an arrest warrant, and will require the defendant to complete a booking process prior to the first court appearance. A summons will not be issued for any offenses that involve firearms or violence, or pose a risk to public safety. Summons are also not granted for defendants who have outstanding arrest warrants. In the case that the defendant doesn't appear per the summons, a bench warrant will be issued by the court.

Bench Warrants

Bench warrants are issued by the court when a defendant fails to make a required appearance.  The authority for issuing bench warrants is found in the California Penal Code §978.5-981, 985-986, 1195-1197, 1284-1285.

Under California Penal Code §978.5, a judge/magistrate can issue a bench warrant when:

A defendant was ordered to appear at a certain court at a specific time and failed to do so

A defendant paid bail and was released from custody, then failed to appear at court at the date and time ordered.

A defendant was released on “O/R” (on his/her own recognizance) and failed to appear when ordered.

Police released a defendant on a citation with a promise to appear and a non appearance occurred.

The defendant was ordered to appear in court despite having an attorney.

Defendant was required to personally appear at arraignment per indictment or information.

Under California Penal Code §979, a defendant (who was released on O/R or bail) who fails to appear at arraignment can be issued a bench warrant and may forfeit any bail paid.

California Penal Code §1043(e) allows the court to issue a bench warrant when a defendant misses a misdemeanor trial without prior authorization.

California Penal Code §1195 allows the court to issue bench warrants for defendants who fail to appear  at the judgment stage of a case.

California Penal Code §§985-986 give authority to issue bench warrants when the defendant is absent during the increase of bail in a felony case.

As with arrest warrants, bench warrants can be served in any county and must be executed within a reasonable amount of time from their issuance. Once a person is arrested on a bench warrant, they are required to be brought before the issuing court. Police arresting a someone on an out of county bench warrant can take the arrestee to that court directly, or may turn him/her over to a law enforcement officer in the appropriate county.

Search Warrants

Under California Penal Code §§1523-1542, a judge/magistrate can issue a search warrant requiring law enforcement to search for certain personal property and present it to the court. Search warrants require probable cause of criminal activity. Search warrants must also meet the Constitutional requirements of the U.S Constitution, article 4, and the California Constitution art I in that they must describe with “particularity” the place that will be searched, and the person or things that will be seized. California Penal Code §1535 requires that law enforcement officials leave a receipt for any property seized as a result of the search warrant.

Subpoenas

Under California Penal Code §686(3) and the California Constitution art I, both a criminal defendant and the state (the prosecution) have the right to command the appearance of a witness through the use of a subpoena. A subpoena may take the form of requiring a witness' personal appearance under California Penal Code §1326(a), or requiring evidence to be presented in court (a subpoena duces tecum) per California Penal Code §§1326(b)-(d).

Subpoenas can be personally served by anyone with the exception of the defendant. Personal service of a subpoena must be done within a reasonable time to allow a witness time to make preparations for his/her attendance.

Under California Penal Code 1330, witnesses located within 150 miles of the court may be subpoenaed by ordinary means. However, if a witness is located further than 150 miles of the court, PC 1339 requires the party sequestering the witness to provide an affidavit to the court demonstrating why that witness is material to the case. This 150 mile rules does not apply to a subpoena duces tecum (for documents). When seeking to subpoena out of state witnesses, the requesting party needs to adhere to the Uniform Act to Secure the Attendance of Witnesses From Without the State in Criminal Cases discussed in PC 1334-1337.

Police officers can be subpoenaed via personal service or through their supervisor who must acknowledge receipt of the subpoena and then provide it to the officer. Under PC 1328(d), there are no exceptions which allow the supervisor to decline to serve the officer if there is not sufficient time to ensure service can be made.

Fees can be paid to subpoenaed witnesses to compensate them for their time. Witness fees are governed by PC 1329. Generally, the court can authorize between $12-18 (out of county funds) per day. The actual parties to the criminal case may elect to pay additional sums to witnesses (i.e. for travel or hotel stays) as long as the amount is considered reasonable.

A subpoena can be invalidated (or quashed) by the court if it is determined the witness will not provide evidence which is material to the case. A subpoena can be quashed for witnesses testifying at motion hearings or trials.

When a subpoenaed witness fails to show at the requested hearing/trial, the court may issue a bench warrant under PC 881, 980, 1196, and CCP 1993. Witnesses who do appear as directed but fail to answer questions during testimony can be held in contempt of court.

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California Penal Code 1427.  (a) When a complaint is presented to a judge in a misdemeanor or infraction case appearing to be triable in the judge's court, the judge must, if satisfied therefrom that the offense complained of has been committed and that there is reasonable ground to believe that the defendant has committed it, issue a warrant, for the arrest of the defendant. (b) Such warrant of arrest and proceedings upon it shall be in conformity to the provisions of this code regarding warrants of arrest, and it may be in the following form:

County of ____ The people of the State of California, to any peace officer in this state: Complaint upon oath having been this day made before me that the offense of ____ (designating it generally) has been committed and accusing ____ (name of defendant) thereof you are therefore commanded forthwith to arrest the above-named defendant and bring the defendant forthwith before the ____ Court of ____ (stating full title of court) at ____ (naming place). Witness my hand and the seal of said court this ____ day of ____, 19__.

(Signed).        ______________ Judge of said ______ court

If it appears that the offense complained of has been committed by a corporation, no warrant of arrest shall issue, but the judge must issue a summons substantially in the form prescribed in Section 1391. Such summons must be served at the time and in the manner designated in Section 1392 except that if the offense complained of is a violation of the Vehicle Code or a local ordinance adopted pursuant to the Vehicle Code, such summons may be served by deposit by the clerk of the court in the United States mail of an envelope enclosing the summons, which envelope shall be addressed to a person authorized to accept service of legal process on behalf of the defendant, and which envelope shall be mailed by registered mail or certified mail with a return receipt requested. Promptly upon such mailing, the clerk of the court shall execute a certificate of such mailing and place it in the file of the court for that case. At the time stated in the summons the corporation may appear by counsel and answer the complaint, except that in the case of misdemeanors arising from operation of motor vehicles, or of infractions arising from operation of motor vehicles, a corporation may appear by its president, vice president, secretary or managing agent for the purpose of entering a plea of guilty. If it does not appear, a plea of not guilty shall be entered, and the same proceedings had therein as in other cases.

California Penal Code 817

(a) (1) When a declaration of probable cause is made by a peace officer of this state, in accordance with subdivision (b) or (c), the magistrate, if, and only if, satisfied from the declaration that there exists probable cause that the offense described in the declaration has been committed and that the defendant described therein has committed the offense, shall issue a warrant of probable cause for the arrest of the defendant. (2) The warrant of probable cause for arrest shall not begin a complaint process pursuant to Section 740 or 813. The warrant of probable cause for arrest shall have the same authority for service as set forth in Section 840 and the same time limitations as that of an arrest warrant issued pursuant to Section 813. (b) The declaration in support of the warrant of probable cause for arrest shall be a sworn statement made in writing. (c) In lieu of the written declaration required in subdivision (b), the magistrate may take an oral statement under oath under either of the following conditions: (1) The oath shall be taken under penalty of perjury and recorded and transcribed. The transcribed statement shall be deemed to be the declaration for the purposes of this section. The recording of the sworn oral statement and the transcribed statement shall be certified by the magistrate receiving it and shall be filed with the clerk of the court. In the alternative, the sworn oral statement may be recorded by a certified court reporter who shall certify the transcript of the statement, after which the magistrate receiving it shall certify the transcript, which shall be filed with the clerk of the court. (2) The oath is made using telephone and facsimile transmission equipment, or made using telephone and electronic mail, under all of the following conditions: (A) The oath is made during a telephone conversation with the magistrate, after which the declarant shall sign his or her declaration in support of the warrant of probable cause for arrest. The declarant's signature shall be in the form of a digital signature if electronic mail is used for transmission to the magistrate. The proposed warrant and all supporting declarations and attachments shall then be transmitted to the magistrate utilizing facsimile transmission equipment or electronic mail. (B) The magistrate shall confirm with the declarant the receipt of the warrant and the supporting declarations and attachments. The magistrate shall verify that all the pages sent have been received, that all pages are legible, and that the declarant's signature, or digital signature, is acknowledged as genuine. (C) If the magistrate decides to issue the warrant, he or she shall: (i) Cause the warrant, supporting declarations, and attachments, to be printed if received by electronic mail. (ii) Sign the warrant. (iii) Note on the warrant the exact date and time of the issuance of the warrant. (iv) Indicate on the warrant that the oath of the declarant was administered orally over the telephone. The completed warrant, as signed by the magistrate, shall be deemed to be the original warrant. (D) The magistrate shall transmit via facsimile transmission equipment, or via electronic mail, the signed warrant to the declarant who shall telephonically acknowledge its receipt. The magistrate shall then telephonically authorize the declarant to write the words “duplicate original” on the copy of the completed warrant transmitted to the declarant and this document shall be deemed to be a duplicate original warrant. (d) Before issuing a warrant, the magistrate may examine under oath the person seeking the warrant and any witness the person may produce, take the written declaration of the person or witness, and cause the person or witness to subscribe the declaration. (e) A warrant of probable cause for arrest shall contain the information required pursuant to Sections 815 and 815a. (f) A warrant of probable cause for arrest may be in substantially the following form:

County of ______, State of California. The people of the State of California to any peace officer of the STATE: Proof by declaration under penalty of perjury having been made this day to me by __________ (name of _________, affiant) I find that there is probable cause to believe that the crime(s) of _________________________ (designate the crime/s) has (have) been committed by the defendant named and described below. Therefore, you are commanded to arrest _____________________ and to bring the (name of defendant) defendant before any magistrate in _______ County pursuant to Sections 821, 825, 826, and 848 of the Penal Code. Defendant is admitted to bail in the amount of______dollars ($______). Time Issued:_____________ __________________ (Signature of the _______ Judge) Dated:____________________ Judge of the_____Court

(g) An original warrant of probable cause for arrest or the duplicate original warrant of probable cause for arrest shall be sufficient for booking a defendant into custody. (h) Once the defendant named in the warrant of probable cause for arrest has been taken into custody, the agency which obtained the warrant shall file a “certificate of service” with the clerk of the issuing court. The certificate of service shall contain all of the following: (1) The date and time of service. (2) The name of the defendant arrested. (3) The location of the arrest. (4) The location where the defendant was incarcerated.

California Penal Code 814

A warrant of arrest issued under Section 813 may be in substantially the following form:

County of ____ The people of the State of California to any peace officer of said State: Complaint on oath having this day been laid before me that the crime of ____ (designating it generally) has been committed and accusing ____ (naming defendant) thereof, you are therefore commanded forthwith to arrest the above named defendant and bring him before me at ____ (naming the place), or in case of my absence or inability to act, before the nearest or most accessible magistrate in this county.

Dated at ______________ (place) this   day of  , 19__. ______________________________________ (Signature and full official title of ______________ magistrate.)

California Penal Code 836

836.  (a) A peace officer may arrest a person in obedience to a warrant, or, pursuant to the authority granted to him or her by Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2, without a warrant, may arrest a person whenever any of the following circumstances occur: (1) The officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed a public offense in the officer's presence. (2) The person arrested has committed a felony, although not in the officer's presence. (3) The officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed a felony, whether or not a felony, in fact, has been committed. (b) Any time a peace officer is called out on a domestic violence call, it shall be mandatory that the officer make a good faith effort to inform the victim of his or her right to make a citizen's arrest. This information shall include advising the victim how to safely execute the arrest. (c) (1) When a peace officer is responding to a call alleging a violation of a domestic violence protective or restraining order issued under Section 527.6 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the Family Code, Section 136.2, 646.91, or paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 1203.097 of this code, Section 213.5 or 15657.03 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or of a domestic violence protective or restraining order issued by the court of another state, tribe, or territory and the peace officer has probable cause to believe that the person against whom the order is issued has notice of the order and has committed an act in violation of the order, the officer shall, consistent with subdivision (b) of Section 13701, make a lawful arrest of the person without a warrant and take that person into custody whether or not the violation occurred in the presence of the arresting officer. The officer shall, as soon as possible after the arrest, confirm with the appropriate authorities or the Domestic Violence Protection Order Registry maintained pursuant to Section 6380 of the Family Code that a true copy of the protective order has been registered, unless the victim provides the officer with a copy of the protective order. (2) The person against whom a protective order has been issued shall be deemed to have notice of the order if the victim presents to the officer proof of service of the order, the officer confirms with the appropriate authorities that a true copy of the proof of service is on file, or the person against whom the protective order was issued was present at the protective order hearing or was informed by a peace officer of the contents of the protective order. (3) In situations where mutual protective orders have been issued under Division 10 (commencing with Section 6200) of the Family Code, liability for arrest under this subdivision applies only to those persons who are reasonably believed to have been the dominant aggressor. In those situations, prior to making an arrest under this subdivision, the peace officer shall make reasonable efforts to identify, and may arrest, the dominant aggressor involved in the incident. The dominant aggressor is the person determined to be the most significant, rather than the first, aggressor. In identifying the dominant aggressor, an officer shall consider (A) the intent of the law to protect victims of domestic violence from continuing abuse, (B) the threats creating fear of physical injury, (C) the history of domestic violence between the persons involved, and (D) whether either person involved acted in self-defense. (d) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), if a suspect commits an assault or battery upon a current or former spouse, fiancé, fiancée, a current or former cohabitant as defined in Section 6209 of the Family Code, a person with whom the suspect currently is having or has previously had an engagement or dating relationship, as defined in paragraph (10) of subdivision (f) of Section 243, a person with whom the suspect has parented a child, or is presumed to have parented a child pursuant to the Uniform Parentage Act (Part 3 (commencing with Section 7600) of Division 12 of the Family Code), a child of the suspect, a child whose parentage by the suspect is the subject of an action under the Uniform Parentage Act, a child of a person in one of the above categories, any other person related to the suspect by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any person who is 65 years of age or older and who is related to the suspect by blood or legal guardianship, a peace officer may arrest the suspect without a warrant where both of the following circumstances apply: (1) The peace officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed the assault or battery, whether or not it has in fact been committed. (2) The peace officer makes the arrest as soon as probable cause arises to believe that the person to be arrested has committed the assault or battery, whether or not it has in fact been committed. (e) In addition to the authority to make an arrest without a warrant pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (3) of subdivision (a), a peace officer may, without a warrant, arrest a person for a violation of Section 25400 when all of the following apply: (1) The officer has reasonable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed the violation of Section 25400. (2) The violation of Section 25400 occurred within an airport, as defined in Section 21013 of the Public Utilities Code, in an area to which access is controlled by the inspection of persons and property. (3) The peace officer makes the arrest as soon as reasonable cause arises to believe that the person to be arrested has committed the violation of Section 25400.

California Penal Code 837

A private person may arrest another: 1. For a public offense committed or attempted in his presence. 2. When the person arrested has committed a felony, although not in his presence. 3. When a felony has been in fact committed, and he has reasonable cause for believing the person arrested to have committed it.

California Penal Code 840

An arrest for the commission of a felony may be made on any day and at any time of the day or night. An arrest for the commission of a misdemeanor or an infraction cannot be made between the hours of 10 o'clock p.m. of any day and 6 o'clock a.m. of the succeeding day, unless: (1) The arrest is made without a warrant pursuant to Section 836 or 837. (2) The arrest is made in a public place. (3) The arrest is made when the person is in custody pursuant to another lawful arrest. (4) The arrest is made pursuant to a warrant which, for good cause shown, directs that it may be served at any time of the day or night.

California Penal Code 825

(a) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the defendant shall in all cases be taken before the magistrate without unnecessary delay, and, in any event, within 48 hours after his or her arrest, excluding Sundays and holidays. (2) When the 48 hours prescribed by paragraph (1) expire at a time when the court in which the magistrate is sitting is not in session, that time shall be extended to include the duration of the next court session on the judicial day immediately following. If the 48-hour period expires at a time when the court in which the magistrate is sitting is in session, the arraignment may take place at any time during that session. However, when the defendant's arrest occurs on a Wednesday after the conclusion of the day's court session, and if the Wednesday is not a court holiday, the defendant shall be taken before the magistrate not later than the following Friday, if the Friday is not a court holiday. (b) After the arrest, any attorney at law entitled to practice in the courts of record of California, may, at the request of the prisoner or any relative of the prisoner, visit the prisoner. Any officer having charge of the prisoner who willfully refuses or neglects to allow that attorney to visit a prisoner is guilty of a misdemeanor. Any officer having a prisoner in charge, who refuses to allow the attorney to visit the prisoner when proper application is made, shall forfeit and pay to the party aggrieved the sum of five hundred dollars ($500), to be recovered by action in any court of competent jurisdiction.

California Penal Code 818

In any case in which a peace officer serves upon a person a warrant of arrest for a misdemeanor offense under the Vehicle Code or under any local ordinance relating to stopping, standing, parking, or operation of a motor vehicle and where no written promise to appear has been filed and the warrant states on its face that a citation may be used in lieu of physical arrest, the peace officer may, instead of taking the person before a magistrate, prepare a notice to appear and release the person on his promise to appear, as prescribed by Sections 853. 6 through 853.8 of the Penal Code. Issuance of a notice to appear and securing of a promise to appear shall be deemed a compliance with the directions of the warrant, and the peace officer issuing such notice to appear and obtaining such promise to appear shall endorse on the warrant “Section 818, Penal Code, complied with” and return the warrant to the magistrate who issued it.

California Penal Code 978.5

(a) A bench warrant of arrest may be issued whenever a defendant fails to appear in court as required by law including, but not limited to, the following situations: (1) If the defendant is ordered by a judge or magistrate to personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (2) If the defendant is released from custody on bail and is ordered by a judge or magistrate, or other person authorized to accept bail, to personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (3) If the defendant is released from custody on his own recognizance and promises to personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (4) If the defendant is released from custody or arrest upon citation by a peace officer or other person authorized to issue citations and the defendant has signed a promise to personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (5) If a defendant is authorized to appear by counsel and the court or magistrate orders that the defendant personally appear in court at a specific time and place. (6) If an information or indictment has been filed in the superior court and the court has fixed the date and place for the defendant personally to appear for arraignment. (b) The bench warrant may be served in any county in the same manner as a warrant of arrest.

California Penal Code 979

If the defendant has been discharged on bail or has deposited money or other property instead thereof, and does not appear to be arraigned when his personal presence is necessary, the court, in addition to the forfeiture of the undertaking of bail or of the money or other property deposited, may order the issuance of a bench warrant for his arrest.

California Penal Code 1043(e)

(e) If the defendant in a misdemeanor case fails to appear in person at the time set for trial or during the course of trial, the court shall proceed with the trial, unless good cause for a continuance exists, if the defendant has authorized his counsel to proceed in his absence pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 977. If there is no authorization pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 977 and if the defendant fails to appear in person at the time set for trial or during the course of trial, the court, in its discretion, may do one or more of the following, as it deems appropriate: (1) Continue the matter. (2) Order bail forfeited or revoke release on the defendant's own recognizance. (3) Issue a bench warrant. (4) Proceed with the trial if the court finds the defendant has absented himself voluntarily with full knowledge that the trial is to be held or is being held.

California Penal Code 1195

If the defendant has been released on bail, or has deposited money or property instead thereof, and does not appear for judgment when his personal appearance is necessary, the court, in addition to the forfeiture of the undertaking of bail, or of the money or property deposited, must, on application of the prosecuting attorney, direct the issuance of a bench warrant for the arrest of the defendant. If the defendant, who is on bail, does appear for judgment and judgment is pronounced upon him or probation is granted to him, then the bail shall be exonerated or, if money or property has been deposited instead of bail, it must be returned to the defendant or to the person or persons found by the court to have deposited said money or property on behalf of said defendant.

California Penal Code 985

When the information or indictment is for a felony, and the defendant, before the filing thereof, has given bail for his appearance to answer the charge, the Court to which the indictment or information is presented, or in which it is pending, may order the defendant to be committed to actual custody, unless he gives bail in an increased amount, to be specified in the order.

California Penal Code 986

If the defendant is present when the order is made, he must be forthwith committed. If he is not present, a bench warrant must be issued and proceeded upon in the manner provided in this chapter.

California Penal Code 1523

A search warrant is an order in writing, in the name of the people, signed by a magistrate, directed to a peace officer, commanding him or her to search for a person or persons, a thing or things, or personal property, and, in the case of a thing or things or personal property, bring the same before the magistrate.

1524.  (a) A search warrant may be issued upon any of the following grounds: (1) When the property was stolen or embezzled. (2) When the property or things were used as the means of committing a felony. (3) When the property or things are in the possession of any person with the intent to use them as a means of committing a public offense, or in the possession of another to whom he or she may have delivered them for the purpose of concealing them or preventing them from being discovered. (4) When the property or things to be seized consist of any item or constitute any evidence that tends to show a felony has been committed, or tends to show that a particular person has committed a felony. (5) When the property or things to be seized consist of evidence that tends to show that sexual exploitation of a child, in violation of Section 311.3, or possession of matter depicting sexual conduct of a person under the age of 18 years, in violation of Section 311.11, has occurred or is occurring. (6) When there is a warrant to arrest a person. (7) When a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service has records or evidence, as specified in Section 1524.3, showing that property was stolen or embezzled constituting a misdemeanor, or that property or things are in the possession of any person with the intent to use them as a means of committing a misdemeanor public offense, or in the possession of another to whom he or she may have delivered them for the purpose of concealing them or preventing their discovery. (8) When the property or things to be seized include an item or any evidence that tends to show a violation of Section 3700.5 of the Labor Code, or tends to show that a particular person has violated Section 3700.5 of the Labor Code. (9) When the property or things to be seized include a firearm or any other deadly weapon at the scene of, or at the premises occupied or under the control of the person arrested in connection with, a domestic violence incident involving a threat to human life or a physical assault as provided in Section 18250. This section does not affect warrantless seizures otherwise authorized by Section 18250. (10) When the property or things to be seized include a firearm or any other deadly weapon that is owned by, or in the possession of, or in the custody or control of, a person described in subdivision (a) of Section 8102 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. (11) When the property or things to be seized include a firearm that is owned by, or in the possession of, or in the custody or control of, a person who is subject to the prohibitions regarding firearms pursuant to Section 6389 of the Family Code, if a prohibited firearm is possessed, owned, in the custody of, or controlled by a person against whom a protective order has been issued pursuant to Section 6218 of the Family Code, the person has been lawfully served with that order, and the person has failed to relinquish the firearm as required by law. (b) The property, things, person, or persons described in subdivision (a) may be taken on the warrant from any place, or from any person in whose possession the property or things may be. (c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) or (b), no search warrant shall issue for any documentary evidence in the possession or under the control of any person who is a lawyer as defined in Section 950 of the Evidence Code, a physician as defined in Section 990 of the Evidence Code, a psychotherapist as defined in Section 1010 of the Evidence Code, or a member of the clergy as defined in Section 1030 of the Evidence Code, and who is not reasonably suspected of engaging or having engaged in criminal activity related to the documentary evidence for which a warrant is requested unless the following procedure has been complied with: (1) At the time of the issuance of the warrant, the court shall appoint a special master in accordance with subdivision (d) to accompany the person who will serve the warrant. Upon service of the warrant, the special master shall inform the party served of the specific items being sought and that the party shall have the opportunity to provide the items requested. If the party, in the judgment of the special master, fails to provide the items requested, the special master shall conduct a search for the items in the areas indicated in the search warrant. (2) (A) If the party who has been served states that an item or items should not be disclosed, they shall be sealed by the special master and taken to court for a hearing. (B) At the hearing, the party searched shall be entitled to raise any issues that may be raised pursuant to Section 1538.5 as well as a claim that the item or items are privileged, as provided by law. The hearing shall be held in the superior court. The court shall provide sufficient time for the parties to obtain counsel and make any motions or present any evidence. The hearing shall be held within three days of the service of the warrant unless the court makes a finding that the expedited hearing is impracticable. In that case the matter shall be heard at the earliest possible time. (C) If an item or items are taken to court for a hearing, any limitations of time prescribed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 799) of Title 3 of Part 2 shall be tolled from the time of the seizure until the final conclusion of the hearing, including any associated writ or appellate proceedings. (3) The warrant shall, whenever practicable, be served during normal business hours. In addition, the warrant shall be served upon a party who appears to have possession or control of the items sought. If, after reasonable efforts, the party serving the warrant is unable to locate the person, the special master shall seal and return to the court, for determination by the court, any item that appears to be privileged as provided by law. (d) (1) As used in this section, a “special master” is an attorney who is a member in good standing of the California State Bar and who has been selected from a list of qualified attorneys that is maintained by the State Bar particularly for the purposes of conducting the searches described in this section. These attorneys shall serve without compensation. A special master shall be considered a public employee, and the governmental entity that caused the search warrant to be issued shall be considered the employer of the special master and the applicable public entity, for purposes of Division 3.6 (commencing with Section 810) of Title 1 of the Government Code, relating to claims and actions against public entities and public employees. In selecting the special master, the court shall make every reasonable effort to ensure that the person selected has no relationship with any of the parties involved in the pending matter. Any information obtained by the special master shall be confidential and may not be divulged except in direct response to inquiry by the court. (2) In any case in which the magistrate determines that, after reasonable efforts have been made to obtain a special master, a special master is not available and would not be available within a reasonable period of time, the magistrate may direct the party seeking the order to conduct the search in the manner described in this section in lieu of the special master. (e) Any search conducted pursuant to this section by a special master may be conducted in a manner that permits the party serving the warrant or his or her designee to accompany the special master as he or she conducts his or her search. However, that party or his or her designee may not participate in the search nor shall he or she examine any of the items being searched by the special master except upon agreement of the party upon whom the warrant has been served. (f) As used in this section, “documentary evidence” includes, but is not limited to, writings, documents, blueprints, drawings, photographs, computer printouts, microfilms, X-rays, files, diagrams, ledgers, books, tapes, audio and video recordings, films, and papers of any type or description. (g) No warrant shall issue for any item or items described in Section 1070 of the Evidence Code. (h) Notwithstanding any other law, no claim of attorney work product as described in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) of Title 4 of Part 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure shall be sustained where there is probable cause to believe that the lawyer is engaging or has engaged in criminal activity related to the documentary evidence for which a warrant is requested unless it is established at the hearing with respect to the documentary evidence seized under the warrant that the services of the lawyer were not sought or obtained to enable or aid anyone to commit or plan to commit a crime or a fraud. (i) Nothing in this section is intended to limit an attorney's ability to request an in camera hearing pursuant to the holding of the Supreme Court of California in People v. Superior Court (Laff) (2001) 25 Cal.4th 703. (j) In addition to any other circumstance permitting a magistrate to issue a warrant for a person or property in another county, when the property or things to be seized consist of any item or constitute any evidence that tends to show a violation of Section 530.5, the magistrate may issue a warrant to search a person or property located in another county if the person whose identifying information was taken or used resides in the same county as the issuing court.

1524.1.  (a) The primary purpose of the testing and disclosure provided in this section is to benefit the victim of a crime by informing the victim whether the defendant is infected with the HIV virus. It is also the intent of the Legislature in enacting this section to protect the health of both victims of crime and those accused of committing a crime. Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize mandatory testing or disclosure of test results for the purpose of a charging decision by a prosecutor, nor, except as specified in subdivisions (g) and (i), shall this section be construed to authorize breach of the confidentiality provisions contained in Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 120975) of Part 4 of Division 105 of the Health and Safety Code. (b) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 120975) of Part 4 of Division 105 of the Health and Safety Code, when a defendant has been charged by complaint, information, or indictment with a crime, or a minor is the subject of a petition filed in juvenile court alleging the commission of a crime, the court, at the request of the victim, may issue a search warrant for the purpose of testing the accused's blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva with any HIV test, as defined in Section 120775 of the Health and Safety Code only under the following circumstances: when the court finds, upon the conclusion of the hearing described in paragraph (3), or in those cases in which a preliminary hearing is not required to be held, that there is probable cause to believe that the accused committed the offense, and that there is probable cause to believe that blood, semen, or any other bodily fluid identified by the State Department of Health Services in appropriate regulations as capable of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus has been transferred from the accused to the victim. (2) Notwithstanding Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 120975) of Part 4 of Division 105 of the Health and Safety Code, when a defendant has been charged by complaint, information, or indictment with a crime under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or with an attempt to commit any of the offenses, and is the subject of a police report alleging the commission of a separate, uncharged offense that could be charged under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or of an attempt to commit any of the offenses, or a minor is the subject of a petition filed in juvenile court alleging the commission of a crime under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or of an attempt to commit any of the offenses, and is the subject of a police report alleging the commission of a separate, uncharged offense that could be charged under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or of an attempt to commit any of the offenses, the court, at the request of the victim of the uncharged offense, may issue a search warrant for the purpose of testing the accused's blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva with any HIV test, as defined in Section 120775 of the Health and Safety Code only under the following circumstances: when the court finds that there is probable cause to believe that the accused committed the uncharged offense, and that there is probable cause to believe that blood, semen, or any other bodily fluid identified by the State Department of Health Services in appropriate regulations as capable of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus has been transferred from the accused to the victim. As used in this paragraph, “Section 289.5″ refers to the statute enacted by Chapter 293 of the Statutes of 1991, penetration by an unknown object. (3) (A) Prior to the issuance of a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (1), the court, where applicable and at the conclusion of the preliminary examination if the defendant is ordered to answer pursuant to Section 872, shall conduct a hearing at which both the victim and the defendant have the right to be present. During the hearing, only affidavits, counter affidavits, and medical reports regarding the facts that support or rebut the issuance of a search warrant under paragraph (1) shall be admissible. (B) Prior to the issuance of a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (2), the court, where applicable, shall conduct a hearing at which both the victim and the defendant are present. During the hearing, only affidavits, counter affidavits, and medical reports regarding the facts that support or rebut the issuance of a search warrant under paragraph (2) shall be admissible. (4) A request for a probable cause hearing made by a victim under paragraph (2) shall be made before sentencing in the superior court, or before disposition on a petition in a juvenile court, of the criminal charge or charges filed against the defendant. (c) (1) In all cases in which the person has been charged by complaint, information, or indictment with a crime, or is the subject of a petition filed in a juvenile court alleging the commission of a crime, the prosecutor shall advise the victim of his or her right to make this request. To assist the victim of the crime to determine whether he or she should make this request, the prosecutor shall refer the victim to the local health officer for prerequest counseling to help that person understand the extent to which the particular circumstances of the crime may or may not have put the victim at risk of transmission of HIV from the accused, to ensure that the victim understands both the benefits and limitations of the current tests for HIV, to help the victim decide whether he or she wants to request that the accused be tested, and to help the victim decide whether he or she wants to be tested. (2) The Department of Justice, in cooperation with the California District Attorneys Association, shall prepare a form to be used in providing victims with the notice required by paragraph (1). (d) If the victim decides to request HIV testing of the accused, the victim shall request the issuance of a search warrant, as described in subdivision (b). Neither the failure of a prosecutor to refer or advise the victim as provided in this subdivision, nor the failure or refusal by the victim to seek or obtain counseling, shall be considered by the court in ruling on the victim's request. (e) The local health officer shall make provision for administering all HIV tests ordered pursuant to subdivision (b). (f) Any blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva tested pursuant to subdivision (b) shall be subjected to appropriate confirmatory tests to ensure accuracy of the first test results, and under no circumstances shall test results be transmitted to the victim or the accused unless any initially reactive test result has been confirmed by appropriate confirmatory tests for positive reactors. (g) The local health officer shall have the responsibility for disclosing test results to the victim who requested the test and to the accused who was tested. However, no positive test results shall be disclosed to the victim or to the accused without also providing or offering professional counseling appropriate to the circumstances. (h) The local health officer and victim shall comply with all laws and policies relating to medical confidentiality subject to the disclosure authorized by subdivisions (g) and (i). Any individual who files a false report of sexual assault in order to obtain test result information pursuant to this section shall, in addition to any other liability under law, be guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as provided in subdivision (c) of Section 120980 of the Health and Safety Code. Any individual as described in the preceding sentence who discloses test result information obtained pursuant to this section shall also be guilty of an additional misdemeanor punishable as provided for in subdivision (c) of Section 120980 of the Health and Safety Code for each separate disclosure of that information. (i) Any victim who receives information from the health officer pursuant to subdivision (g) may disclose the test results as the victim deems necessary to protect his or her health and safety or the health and safety of his or her family or sexual partner. (j) Any person transmitting test results or disclosing information pursuant to this section shall be immune from civil liability for any actions taken in compliance with this section. (k) The results of any blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva tested pursuant to subdivision (b) shall not be used in any criminal proceeding as evidence of either guilt or innocence.

1524.2.  (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings: (1) The terms “electronic communication services” and “remote computing services” shall be construed in accordance with the Electronic Communications Privacy Act in Chapter 121 (commencing with Section 2701) of Part I of Title 18 of the United State Code Annotated. This section shall not apply to corporations that do not provide those services to the general public. (2) An “adverse result” occurs when notification of the existence of a search warrant results in: (A) Danger to the life or physical safety of an individual. (B) A flight from prosecution. (C) The destruction of or tampering with evidence. (D) The intimidation of potential witnesses. (E) Serious jeopardy to an investigation or undue delay of a trial. (3) “Applicant” refers to the peace officer to whom a search warrant is issued pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1528. (4) “California corporation” refers to any corporation or other entity that is subject to Section 102 of the Corporations Code, excluding foreign corporations. (5) “Foreign corporation” refers to any corporation that is qualified to do business in this state pursuant to Section 2105 of the Corporations Code. (6) “Properly served” means that a search warrant has been delivered by hand, or in a manner reasonably allowing for proof of delivery if delivered by United States mail, overnight delivery service, or facsimile to a person or entity listed in Section 2110 of the Corporations Code. (b) The following provisions shall apply to any search warrant issued pursuant to this chapter allowing a search for records that are in the actual or constructive possession of a foreign corporation that provides electronic communication services or remote computing services to the general public, where those records would reveal the identity of the customers using those services, data stored by, or on behalf of, the customer, the customer's usage of those services, the recipient or destination of communications sent to or from those customers, or the content of those communications. (1) When properly served with a search warrant issued by the California court, a foreign corporation subject to this section shall provide to the applicant, all records sought pursuant to that warrant within five business days of receipt, including those records maintained or located outside this state. (2) Where the applicant makes a showing and the magistrate finds that failure to produce records within less than five business days would cause an adverse result, the warrant may require production of records within less than five business days. A court may reasonably extend the time required for production of the records upon finding that the foreign corporation has shown good cause for that extension and that an extension of time would not cause an adverse result. (3) A foreign corporation seeking to quash the warrant must seek relief from the court that issued the warrant within the time required for production of records pursuant to this section. The issuing court shall hear and decide that motion no later than five court days after the motion is filed. (4) The foreign corporation shall verify the authenticity of records that it produces by providing an affidavit that complies with the requirements set forth in Section 1561 of the Evidence Code. Those records shall be admissible in evidence as set forth in Section 1562 of the Evidence Code. (c) A California corporation that provides electronic communication services or remote computing services to the general public, when served with a warrant issued by another state to produce records that would reveal the identity of the customers using those services, data stored by, or on behalf of, the customer, the customer' s usage of those services, the recipient or destination of communications sent to or from those customers, or the content of those communications, shall produce those records as if that warrant had been issued by a California court. (d) No cause of action shall lie against any foreign or California corporation subject to this section, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing records, information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a warrant issued pursuant to this chapter.

1524.3.  (a) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service, as used in Chapter 121 (commencing with Section 2701) of Title 18 of the United States Code, shall disclose to a governmental prosecuting or investigating agency the name, address, local and long distance telephone toll billing records, telephone number or other subscriber number or identity, and length of service of a subscriber to or customer of that service, and the types of services the subscriber or customer utilized, when the governmental entity is granted a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1524. (b) A governmental entity receiving subscriber records or information under this section is not required to provide notice to a subscriber or customer. (c) A court issuing a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1524, on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify the warrant if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in nature or compliance with the warrant otherwise would cause an undue burden on the provider. (d) A provider of wire or electronic communication services or a remote computing service, upon the request of a peace officer, shall take all necessary steps to preserve records and other evidence in its possession pending the issuance of a search warrant or a request in writing and an affidavit declaring an intent to file a warrant to the provider. Records shall be retained for a period of 90 days, which shall be extended for an additional 90-day period upon a renewed request by the peace officer. (e) No cause of action shall be brought against any provider, its officers, employees, or agents for providing information, facilities, or assistance in good faith compliance with a search warrant.

1525.  A search warrant cannot be issued but upon probable cause, supported by affidavit, naming or describing the person to be searched or searched for, and particularly describing the property, thing, or things and the place to be searched. The application shall specify when applicable, that the place to be searched is in the possession or under the control of an attorney, physician, psychotherapist or clergyman.

1526.  (a) The magistrate, before issuing the warrant, may examine on oath the person seeking the warrant and any witnesses the person may produce, and shall take his or her affidavit or their affidavits in writing, and cause the affidavit or affidavits to be subscribed by the party or parties making them. (b) In lieu of the written affidavit required in subdivision (a), the magistrate may take an oral statement under oath under one of the following conditions: (1) The oath shall be made under penalty of perjury and recorded and transcribed. The transcribed statement shall be deemed to be an affidavit for the purposes of this chapter. In these cases, the recording of the sworn oral statement and the transcribed statement shall be certified by the magistrate receiving it and shall be filed with the clerk of the court. In the alternative in these cases, the sworn oral statement shall be recorded by a certified court reporter and the transcript of the statement shall be certified by the reporter, after which the magistrate receiving it shall certify the transcript which shall be filed with the clerk of the court. (2) The oath is made using telephone and facsimile transmission equipment, telephone and electronic mail, or telephone and computer server, as follows: (A) The oath is made during a telephone conversation with the magistrate, whereafter the affiant shall sign his or her affidavit in support of the application for the search warrant. The affiant's signature shall be in the form of a digital signature or electronic signature if electronic mail or computer server is used for transmission to the magistrate. The proposed search warrant and all supporting affidavits and attachments shall then be transmitted to the magistrate utilizing facsimile transmission equipment, electronic mail, or computer server. (B) The magistrate shall confirm with the affiant the receipt of the search warrant and the supporting affidavits and attachments. The magistrate shall verify that all the pages sent have been received, that all pages are legible, and that the affiant's signature, digital signature, or electronic signature is acknowledged as genuine. (C) If the magistrate decides to issue the search warrant, he or she shall: (i) Sign the warrant. The magistrate's signature may be in the form of a digital signature or electronic signature if electronic mail or computer server is used for transmission to the magistrate. (ii) Note on the warrant the exact date and time of the issuance of the warrant. (iii) Indicate on the warrant that the oath of the affiant was administered orally over the telephone. The completed search warrant, as signed by the magistrate, shall be deemed to be the original warrant. (D) The magistrate shall transmit via facsimile transmission equipment, electronic mail, or computer server, the signed search warrant to the affiant who shall telephonically acknowledge its receipt. The magistrate shall then telephonically authorize the affiant to write the words “duplicate original” on the copy of the completed search warrant transmitted to the affiant and this document shall be deemed to be a duplicate original search warrant. The duplicate original warrant and any affidavits or attachments in support thereof shall be returned as provided in Section 1534.

1527.  The affidavit or affidavits must set forth the facts tending to establish the grounds of the application, or probable cause for believing that they exist.

1528.  (a) If the magistrate is thereupon satisfied of the existence of the grounds of the application, or that there is probable cause to believe their existence, he or she must issue a search warrant, signed by him or her with his or her name of office, to a peace officer in his or her county, commanding him or her forthwith to search the person or place named for the property or things or person or persons specified, and to retain the property or things in his or her custody subject to order of the court as provided by Section 1536. (b) The magistrate may orally authorize a peace officer to sign the magistrate's name on a duplicate original warrant. A duplicate original warrant shall be deemed to be a search warrant for the purposes of this chapter, and it shall be returned to the magistrate as provided for in Section 1537. The magistrate shall enter on the face of the original warrant the exact time of the issuance of the warrant and shall sign and file the original warrant and the duplicate original warrant with the clerk of the court as provided for in Section 1541.

1529.  The warrant shall be in substantially the following form: County of ____. The people of the State of California to any peace officer in the County of ____: Proof, by affidavit, having been this day made before me by (naming every person whose affidavit has been taken), that (stating the grounds of the application, according to Section 1524, or, if the affidavit be not positive, that there is probable cause for believing that ____ stating the ground of the application in the same manner), you are therefore commanded, in the daytime (or at any time of the day or night, as the case may be, according to Section 1533), to make search on the person of C. D. (or in the house situated ____, describing it, or any other place to be searched, with reasonable particularity, as the case may be) for the following property, thing, things, or person: (describing the property, thing, things, or person with reasonable particularity); and, in the case of a thing or things or personal property, if you find the same or any part thereof, to bring the thing or things or personal property forthwith before me (or this court) at (stating the place). Given under my hand, and dated this ____ day of ____, A.D. (year). E. F., Judge of the (applicable) Court.

1530.  A search warrant may in all cases be served by any of the officers mentioned in its directions, but by no other person, except in aid of the officer on his requiring it, he being present and acting in its execution.

1531.  The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of a house, or anything therein, to execute the warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused admittance.

1532.  He may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, for the purpose of liberating a person who, having entered to aid him in the execution of the warrant, is detained therein, or when necessary for his own liberation.

1533.  Upon a showing of good cause, the magistrate may, in his or her discretion, insert a direction in a search warrant that it may be served at any time of the day or night. In the absence of such a direction, the warrant shall be served only between the hours of 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. When establishing “good cause” under this section, the magistrate shall consider the safety of the peace officers serving the warrant and the safety of the public as a valid basis for nighttime endorsements.

1534.  (a) A search warrant shall be executed and returned within 10 days after date of issuance. A warrant executed within the 10-day period shall be deemed to have been timely executed and no further showing of timeliness need be made. After the expiration of 10 days, the warrant, unless executed, is void. The documents and records of the court relating to the warrant need not be open to the public until the execution and return of the warrant or the expiration of the 10-day period after issuance. Thereafter, if the warrant has been executed, the documents and records shall be open to the public as a judicial record. (b) If a duplicate original search warrant has been executed, the peace officer who executed the warrant shall enter the exact time of its execution on its face. (c) A search warrant may be made returnable before the issuing magistrate or his court.

1535.  When the officer takes property under the warrant, he must give a receipt for the property taken (specifying it in detail) to the person from whom it was taken by him, or in whose possession it was found; or, in the absence of any person, he must leave it in the place where he found the property.

1536.  All property or things taken on a warrant must be retained by the officer in his custody, subject to the order of the court to which he is required to return the proceedings before him, or of any other court in which the offense in respect to which the property or things taken is triable.

1536.5.  (a) If a government agency seizes business records from an entity pursuant to a search warrant, the entity from which the records were seized may file a demand on that government agency to produce copies of the business records that have been seized. The demand for production of copies of business records shall be supported by a declaration, made under penalty of perjury, that denial of access to the records in question will either unduly interfere with the entity's ability to conduct its regular course of business or obstruct the entity from fulfilling an affirmative obligation that it has under the law. Unless the government agency objects pursuant to subdivision (d), this declaration shall suffice if it makes a prima facie case that specific business activities or specific legal obligations faced by the entity would be impaired or impeded by the ongoing loss of records. (b) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), when a government agency seizes business records from an entity and is subsequently served with a demand for copies of those business records pursuant to subdivision (a), the government agency in possession of those records shall make copies of those records available to the entity within 10 court days of the service of the demand to produce copies of the records. (2) In the alternative, the agency in possession of the original records, may in its discretion, make the original records reasonably available to the entity within 10 court days following the service of the demand to produce records, and allow the entity reasonable time to copy the records. (3) No agency shall be required to make records available at times other than normal business hours. (4) If data is recorded in a tangible medium, copies of the data may be provided in that same medium, or any other medium of which the entity may make reasonable use. If the data is stored electronically, electromagnetically, or photo-optically, the entity may obtain either a copy made by the same process in which the data is stored, or in the alternative, by any other tangible medium through which the entity may make reasonable use of the data. (5) A government agency granting the entity access to the original records for the purpose of making copies of the records, may take reasonable steps to ensure the integrity and chain of custody of the business records. (6) If the seized records are too voluminous to be reviewed or be copied in the time period required by subdivision (a), the government agency that seized the records may file a written motion with the court for additional time to review the records or make the copies. This motion shall be made within 10 court days of the service of the demand for the records. An extension of time under this paragraph shall not be granted unless the agency establishes that reviewing or producing copies of the records within the 10 court day time period, would create a hardship on the agency. If the court grants the motion, it shall make an order designating a timeframe for the review and the duplication and return of the business records, deferring to the entity the priority of the records to be reviewed, duplicated, and returned first. (c) If a court finds that a declaration made by an entity as provided in subdivision (a) is adequate to establish the specified prima facie case, a government agency may refuse to produce copies of the business records or to grant access to the original records only under one or both of the following circumstances: (1) The court determines by the preponderance of the evidence standard that denial of access to the business records or copies of the business records will not unduly interfere with the entity's ability to conduct its regular course of business or obstruct the entity from fulfilling an affirmative obligation that it has under the law. (2) The court determines by the preponderance of the evidence standard that possession of the business records by the entity will pose a significant risk of ongoing criminal activity, or that the business records are contraband, evidence of criminal conduct by the entity from which the records were seized, or depict a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or simulating sexual conduct, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 311.4. (d) A government agency that desires not to produce copies of, or grant access to, seized business records shall file a motion with the court requesting an order denying the entity copies of and access to the records. A motion under this paragraph shall be in writing, and filed and served upon the entity prior to the expiration of 10 court days following the service of the demand to produce records specified in subdivision (a), within any extension of that time period granted under paragraph (6) of subdivision (b), or as soon as reasonably possible after discovery of the risk of harm. (e) A hearing on a motion under subdivision (d) shall be held within two court days of the filing of the motion, except upon agreement of the parties. (f) (1) Upon filing a motion under subdivision (d) opposing a demand for copies of records, the government agency may file a request in writing, served upon the demanding entity, that any showings of why the material should not be copied and released occur in an ex parte, in camera hearing. If the government agency alleges in its request for an in camera hearing that the demanding entity is, or is likely to become, a target of the investigation resulting in the seizure of records, the court shall hold this hearing outside of the presence of the demanding entity, and any representatives or counsel of the demanding entity. If the government agency does not allege in its request for an in camera hearing that the demanding entity is, or is likely to become, a target of the investigation resulting in the seizure of records, the court shall hold the hearing in camera only upon a particular factual showing by the government agency in its pleadings that a hearing in open court would impede or interrupt an ongoing criminal investigation. (2) At the in camera hearing, any evidence that the government agency may offer that the release of the material would pose a significant risk of ongoing criminal activity, impede or interrupt an ongoing criminal investigation, or both, shall be offered under oath. A reporter shall be present at the in camera hearing to transcribe the entirety of the proceedings. (3) Any transcription of the proceedings at the in camera hearing, as well as any physical evidence presented at the hearing, shall be ordered sealed by the court, and only a court may have access to its contents, unless a court determines that the failure to disclose the contents of the hearing would deprive the defendant or the people of a fair trial. (4) Following the conclusion of the in camera hearing, the court shall make its ruling in open court, after notice to the demanding entity. (g) The reasonable and necessary costs of producing copies of business records under this section shall be borne by the entity requesting copies of the records. Either party may request the court to resolve any dispute regarding these costs. (h) Any motion under this section shall be filed in the court that issued the search warrant. (i) For purposes of this section, the following terms are defined as follows: (1) “Seize” means obtaining actual possession of any property alleged by the entity to contain business records. (2) “Business” means an entity, sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation operating legally in the State of California, that sells, leases, distributes, creates, or otherwise offers products or services to customers. (3) “Business records” means computer data, data compilations, accounts, books, reports, contracts, correspondence, inventories, lists, personnel files, payrolls, vendor and client lists, documents, or papers of the person or business normally used in the regular course of business, or any other material item of business recordkeeping that may become technologically feasible in the future.

1537.  The officer must forthwith return the warrant to the magistrate, and deliver to him a written inventory of the property taken, made publicly or in the presence of the person from whose possession it was taken, and of the applicant for the warrant, if they are present, verified by the affidavit of the officer at the foot of the inventory, and taken before the magistrate at the time, to the following effect: “I, R. S., the officer by whom this warrant was executed, do swear that the above inventory contains a true and detailed account of all the property taken by me on the warrant.”

1538.  The magistrate must thereupon, if required, deliver a copy of the inventory to the person from whose possession the property was taken, and to the applicant for the warrant.

1538.5.  (a) (1) A defendant may move for the return of property or to suppress as evidence any tangible or intangible thing obtained as a result of a search or seizure on either of the following grounds: (A) The search or seizure without a warrant was unreasonable. (B) The search or seizure with a warrant was unreasonable because any of the following apply: (i) The warrant is insufficient on its face. (ii) The property or evidence obtained is not that described in the warrant. (iii) There was not probable cause for the issuance of the warrant. (iv) The method of execution of the warrant violated federal or state constitutional standards. (v) There was any other violation of federal or state constitutional standards. (2) A motion pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be made in writing and accompanied by a memorandum of points and authorities and proof of service. The memorandum shall list the specific items of property or evidence sought to be returned or suppressed and shall set forth the factual basis and the legal authorities that demonstrate why the motion should be granted. (b) When consistent with the procedures set forth in this section and subject to the provisions of Sections 170 to 170.6, inclusive, of the Code of Civil Procedure, the motion should first be heard by the magistrate who issued the search warrant if there is a warrant. (c) (1) Whenever a search or seizure motion is made in the superior court as provided in this section, the judge or magistrate shall receive evidence on any issue of fact necessary to determine the motion. (2) While a witness is under examination during a hearing pursuant to a search or seizure motion, the judge or magistrate shall, upon motion of either party, do any of the following: (A) Exclude all potential and actual witnesses who have not been examined. (B) Order the witnesses not to converse with each other until they are all examined. (C) Order, where feasible, that the witnesses be kept separated from each other until they are all examined. (D) Hold a hearing, on the record, to determine if the person sought to be excluded is, in fact, a person excludable under this section. (3) Either party may challenge the exclusion of any person under paragraph (2). (4) Paragraph (2) does not apply to the investigating officer or the investigator for the defendant, nor does it apply to officers having custody of persons brought before the court. (d) If a search or seizure motion is granted pursuant to the proceedings authorized by this section, the property or evidence shall not be admissible against the movant at any trial or other hearing unless further proceedings authorized by this section, Section 871.5, 1238, or 1466 are utilized by the people. (e) If a search or seizure motion is granted at a trial, the property shall be returned upon order of the court unless it is otherwise subject to lawful detention. If the motion is granted at a special hearing, the property shall be returned upon order of the court only if, after the conclusion of any further proceedings authorized by this section, Section 1238 or 1466, the property is not subject to lawful detention or if the time for initiating the proceedings has expired, whichever occurs last. If the motion is granted at a preliminary hearing, the property shall be returned upon order of the court after 10 days unless the property is otherwise subject to lawful detention or unless, within that time, further proceedings authorized by this section, Section 871.5 or 1238 are utilized; if they are utilized, the property shall be returned only if, after the conclusion of the proceedings, the property is no longer subject to lawful detention. (f) (1) If the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by a complaint, the motion shall be made only upon filing of an information, except that the defendant may make the motion at the preliminary hearing, but the motion shall be restricted to evidence sought to be introduced by the people at the preliminary hearing. (2) The motion may be made at the preliminary examination only if, at least five court days before the date set for the preliminary examination, the defendant has filed and personally served on the people a written motion accompanied by a memorandum of points and authorities as required by paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). At the preliminary examination, the magistrate may grant the defendant a continuance for the purpose of filing the motion and serving the motion upon the people, at least five court days before resumption of the examination, upon a showing that the defendant or his or her attorney of record was not aware of the evidence or was not aware of the grounds for suppression before the preliminary examination. (3) Any written response by the people to the motion described in paragraph (2) shall be filed with the court and personally served on the defendant or his or her attorney of record at least two court days prior to the hearing at which the motion is to be made. (g) If the property or evidence relates to a misdemeanor complaint, the motion shall be made before trial and heard prior to trial at a special hearing relating to the validity of the search or seizure. If the property or evidence relates to a misdemeanor filed together with a felony, the procedure provided for a felony in this section and Sections 1238 and 1539 shall be applicable. (h) If, prior to the trial of a felony or misdemeanor, opportunity for this motion did not exist or the defendant was not aware of the grounds for the motion, the defendant shall have the right to make this motion during the course of trial. (i) If the property or evidence obtained relates to a felony offense initiated by complaint and the defendant was held to answer at the preliminary hearing, or if the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by indictment, the defendant shall have the right to renew or make the motion at a special hearing relating to the validity of the search or seizure which shall be heard prior to trial and at least 10 court days after notice to the people, unless the people are willing to waive a portion of this time. Any written response by the people to the motion shall be filed with the court and personally served on the defendant or his or her attorney of record at least two court days prior to the hearing, unless the defendant is willing to waive a portion of this time. If the offense was initiated by indictment or if the offense was initiated by complaint and no motion was made at the preliminary hearing, the defendant shall have the right to fully litigate the validity of a search or seizure on the basis of the evidence presented at a special hearing. If the motion was made at the preliminary hearing, unless otherwise agreed to by all parties, evidence presented at the special hearing shall be limited to the transcript of the preliminary hearing and to evidence that could not reasonably have been presented at the preliminary hearing, except that the people may recall witnesses who testified at the preliminary hearing. If the people object to the presentation of evidence at the special hearing on the grounds that the evidence could reasonably have been presented at the preliminary hearing, the defendant shall be entitled to an in camera hearing to determine that issue. The court shall base its ruling on all evidence presented at the special hearing and on the transcript of the preliminary hearing, and the findings of the magistrate shall be binding on the court as to evidence or property not affected by evidence presented at the special hearing. After the special hearing is held, any review thereafter desired by the defendant prior to trial shall be by means of an extraordinary writ of mandate or prohibition filed within 30 days after the denial of his or her motion at the special hearing. (j) If the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by complaint and the defendant's motion for the return of the property or suppression of the evidence at the preliminary hearing is granted, and if the defendant is not held to answer at the preliminary hearing, the people may file a new complaint or seek an indictment after the preliminary hearing, and the ruling at the prior hearing shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding, except as limited by subdivision (p). In the alternative, the people may move to reinstate the complaint, or those parts of the complaint for which the defendant was not held to answer, pursuant to Section 871.5. If the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by complaint and the defendant's motion for the return or suppression of the property or evidence at the preliminary hearing is granted, and if the defendant is held to answer at the preliminary hearing, the ruling at the preliminary hearing shall be binding upon the people unless, upon notice to the defendant and the court in which the preliminary hearing was held and upon the filing of an information, the people, within 15 days after the preliminary hearing, request a special hearing, in which case the validity of the search or seizure shall be relitigated de novo on the basis of the evidence presented at the special hearing, and the defendant shall be entitled, as a matter of right, to a continuance of the special hearing for a period of time up to 30 days. The people may not request relitigation of the motion at a special hearing if the defendant's motion has been granted twice. If the defendant's motion is granted at a special hearing, the people, if they have additional evidence relating to the motion and not presented at the special hearing, shall have the right to show good cause at the trial why the evidence was not presented at the special hearing and why the prior ruling at the special hearing should not be binding, or the people may seek appellate review as provided in subdivision (o), unless the court, prior to the time the review is sought, has dismissed the case pursuant to Section 1385. If the case has been dismissed pursuant to Section 1385, either on the court's own motion or the motion of the people after the special hearing, the people may file a new complaint or seek an indictment after the special hearing, and the ruling at the special hearing shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding, except as limited by subdivision (p). If the property or evidence seized relates solely to a misdemeanor complaint, and the defendant made a motion for the return of property or the suppression of evidence in the superior court prior to trial, both the people and defendant shall have the right to appeal any decision of that court relating to that motion to the appellate division, in accordance with the California Rules of Court provisions governing appeals to the appellate division in criminal cases. If the people prosecute review by appeal or writ to decision, or any review thereof, in a felony or misdemeanor case, it shall be binding upon them. (k) If the defendant's motion to return property or suppress evidence is granted and the case is dismissed pursuant to Section 1385, or the people appeal in a misdemeanor case pursuant to subdivision (j), the defendant shall be released pursuant to Section 1318 if he or she is in custody and not returned to custody unless the proceedings are resumed in the trial court and he or she is lawfully ordered by the court to be returned to custody. If the defendant's motion to return property or suppress evidence is granted and the people file a petition for writ of mandate or prohibition pursuant to subdivision (o) or a notice of intention to file a petition, the defendant shall be released pursuant to Section 1318, unless (1) he or she is charged with a capital offense in a case where the proof is evident and the presumption great, or (2) he or she is charged with a noncapital offense defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 187) of Title 8 of Part 1, and the court orders that the defendant be discharged from actual custody upon bail. (l) If the defendant's motion to return property or suppress evidence is granted, the trial of a criminal case shall be stayed to a specified date pending the termination in the appellate courts of this state of the proceedings provided for in this section, Section 871.5, 1238, or 1466 and, except upon stipulation of the parties, pending the time for the initiation of these proceedings. Upon the termination of these proceedings, the defendant shall be brought to trial as provided by Section 1382, and, subject to the provisions of Section 1382, whenever the people have sought and been denied appellate review pursuant to subdivision (o), the defendant shall be entitled to have the action dismissed if he or she is not brought to trial within 30 days of the date of the order that is the last denial of the petition. Nothing contained in this subdivision shall prohibit a court, at the same time as it rules upon the search and seizure motion, from dismissing a case pursuant to Section 1385 when the dismissal is upon the court's own motion and is based upon an order at the special hearing granting the defendant's motion to return property or suppress evidence. In a misdemeanor case, the defendant shall be entitled to a continuance of up to 30 days if he or she intends to file a motion to return property or suppress evidence and needs this time to prepare for the special hearing on the motion. In case of an appeal by the defendant in a misdemeanor case from the denial of the motion, he or she shall be entitled to bail as a matter of right, and, in the discretion of the trial or appellate court, may be released on his or her own recognizance pursuant to Section 1318. In the case of an appeal by the defendant in a misdemeanor case from the denial of the motion, the trial court may, in its discretion, order or deny a stay of further proceedings pending disposition of the appeal. (m) The proceedings provided for in this section, and Sections 871.5, 995, 1238, and 1466 shall constitute the sole and exclusive remedies prior to conviction to test the unreasonableness of a search or seizure where the person making the motion for the return of property or the suppression of evidence is a defendant in a criminal case and the property or thing has been offered or will be offered as evidence against him or her. A defendant may seek further review of the validity of a search or seizure on appeal from a conviction in a criminal case notwithstanding the fact that the judgment of conviction is predicated upon a plea of guilty. Review on appeal may be obtained by the defendant provided that at some stage of the proceedings prior to conviction he or she has moved for the return of property or the suppression of the evidence. (n) This section establishes only the procedure for suppression of evidence and return of property, and does not establish or alter any substantive ground for suppression of evidence or return of property. Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit a person from making a motion, otherwise permitted by law, to return property, brought on the ground that the property obtained is protected by the free speech and press provisions of the United States and California Constitutions. Nothing in this section shall be construed as altering (1) the law of standing to raise the issue of an unreasonable search or seizure; (2) the law relating to the status of the person conducting the search or seizure; (3) the law relating to the burden of proof regarding the search or seizure; (4) the law relating to the reasonableness of a search or seizure regardless of any warrant that may have been utilized; or (5) the procedure and law relating to a motion made pursuant to Section 871.5 or 995, or the procedures that may be initiated after the granting or denial of a motion. (o) Within 30 days after a defendant's motion is granted at a special hearing in a felony case, the people may file a petition for writ of mandate or prohibition in the court of appeal, seeking appellate review of the ruling regarding the search or seizure motion. If the trial of a criminal case is set for a date that is less than 30 days from the granting of a defendant's motion at a special hearing in a felony case, the people, if they have not filed a petition and wish to preserve their right to file a petition, shall file in the superior court on or before the trial date or within 10 days after the special hearing, whichever occurs last, a notice of intention to file a petition and shall serve a copy of the notice upon the defendant. (p) If a defendant's motion to return property or suppress evidence in a felony matter has been granted twice, the people may not file a new complaint or seek an indictment in order to relitigate the motion or relitigate the matter de novo at a special hearing as otherwise provided by subdivision (j), unless the people discover additional evidence relating to the motion that was not reasonably discoverable at the time of the second suppression hearing. Relitigation of the motion shall be heard by the same judge who granted the motion at the first hearing if the judge is available. (q) The amendments to this section enacted in the 1997 portion of the 1997-98 Regular Session of the Legislature shall apply to all criminal proceedings conducted on or after January 1, 1998.

1539.  (a) If a special hearing is held in a felony case pursuant to Section 1538.5, or if the grounds on which the warrant was issued are controverted and a motion to return property is made (i) by a defendant on grounds not covered by Section 1538.5, (ii) by a defendant whose property has not been offered or will not be offered as evidence against the defendant, or (iii) by a person who is not a defendant in a criminal action at the time the hearing is held, the judge or magistrate shall proceed to take testimony in relation thereto, and the testimony of each witness shall be reduced to writing and authenticated by a shorthand reporter in the manner prescribed in Section 869. (b) The reporter shall forthwith transcribe the reporter's shorthand notes pursuant to this section if any party to a special hearing in a felony case files a written request for its preparation with the clerk of the court in which the hearing was held. The reporter shall forthwith file in the superior court an original and as many copies thereof as there are defendants (other than a fictitious defendant) or persons aggrieved. The reporter is entitled to compensation in accordance with the provisions of Section 869. In every case in which a transcript is filed as provided in this section, the clerk of the court shall deliver the original of the transcript so filed to the district attorney immediately upon receipt thereof and shall deliver a copy of the transcript to each defendant (other than a fictitious defendant) upon demand without cost to the defendant. (c) Upon a motion by a defendant pursuant to this chapter, the defendant is entitled to discover any previous application for a search warrant in the case which was refused by a magistrate for lack of probable cause.

1540.  If it appears that the property taken is not the same as that described in the warrant, or that there is no probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued, the magistrate must cause it to be restored to the person from whom it was taken.

1541.  The magistrate must annex the affidavit, or affidavits, the search warrant and return, and the inventory, and if he has not power to inquire into the offense in respect to which the warrant was issued, he must at once file such warrant and return and such affidavit, or affidavits, and inventory with the clerk of the court having power to so inquire.

1542.  When a person charged with a felony is supposed by the magistrate before whom he is brought to have on his person a dangerous weapon, or anything which may be used as evidence of the commission of the offense, the magistrate may direct him to be searched in his presence, and the weapon or other thing to be retained, subject to his order, or to the order of the Court in which the defendant may be tried.

California Penal Code 686.

In a criminal action the defendant is entitled: 1. To a speedy and public trial. 2. To be allowed counsel as in civil actions, or to appear and defend in person and with counsel, except that in a capital case he shall be represented in court by counsel at all stages of the preliminary and trial proceedings. 3. To produce witnesses on his behalf and to be confronted with the witnesses against him, in the presence of the court, except that: (a) Hearsay evidence may be admitted to the extent that it is otherwise admissible in a criminal action under the law of this state. (b) The deposition of a witness taken in the action may be read to the extent that it is otherwise admissible under the law of this state.

California Penal Code 1326

1326.  (a) The process by which the attendance of a witness before a court or magistrate is required is a subpoena. It may be signed and issued by any of the following: (1) A magistrate before whom a complaint is laid or his or her clerk, the district attorney or his or her investigator, or the public defender or his or her investigator, for witnesses in the state. (2) The district attorney, his or her investigator, or, upon request of the grand jury, any judge of the superior court, for witnesses in the state, in support of an indictment or information, to appear before the court in which it is to be tried. (3) The district attorney or his or her investigator, the public defender or his or her investigator, or the clerk of the court in which a criminal action is to be tried. The clerk shall, at any time, upon application of the defendant, and without charge, issue as many blank subpoenas, subscribed by him or her, for witnesses in the state, as the defendant may require. (4) The attorney of record for the defendant. (b) A subpoena issued in a criminal action that commands the custodian of records or other qualified witness of a business to produce books, papers, documents, or records shall direct that those items be delivered by the custodian or qualified witness in the manner specified in subdivision (b) of Section 1560 of the Evidence Code. Subdivision (e) of Section 1560 of the Evidence Code shall not apply to criminal cases. (c) In a criminal action, no party, or attorney or representative of a party, may issue a subpoena commanding the custodian of records or other qualified witness of a business to provide books, papers, documents, or records, or copies thereof, relating to a person or entity other than the subpoenaed person or entity in any manner other than that specified in subdivision (b) of Section 1560 of the Evidence Code. When a defendant has issued a subpoena to a person or entity that is not a party for the production of books, papers, documents, or records, or copies thereof, the court may order an in camera hearing to determine whether or not the defense is entitled to receive the documents. The court may not order the documents disclosed to the prosecution except as required by Section 1054.3. (d) This section shall not be construed to prohibit obtaining books, papers, documents, or records with the consent of the person to whom the books, papers, documents, or records relate.

California Penal Code 1339

If the court or judge is satisfied that the examination of the witness is necessary, an order must be made that the witness be examined conditionally, at a specified time and place, and before a magistrate designated therein.

California Penal Code 1334

This chapter may be cited as the Uniform Act to Secure the Attendance of Witnesses from without the State in Criminal Cases.

California Penal Code 1334.1

As used in this chapter: (a) “Witness” includes any person whose testimony is desired in any proceeding or investigation by a grand jury or in any criminal action, prosecution, or proceeding. (b) “State” means any State or Territory of the United States and the District of Columbia. (c) “Grand jury investigation” means any grand jury investigation which has commenced or is about to commence. (d) “Per diem” means a sum of money the purpose of which is to provide for personal expenses, including, but not limited to, food and lodging.

California Penal Code 1334.2

If a judge of a court of record in any state, which by its laws provides for commanding persons within that state to attend and testify in this state, issues a certificate under the seal of the court that there is a criminal prosecution pending in the court, or that there is a grand jury investigation, that a person within this state is a material witness in that prosecution or grand jury investigation, and that his or her presence will be required for a specified number of days, then, upon presentation of the certificate to a judge of a court of record in the county in which the person is, a time and place for a hearing shall be fixed by the judge and he or she shall make an order directing the witness to appear at the hearing. If, at the hearing, the judge determines that the witness is material and necessary, that it will not cause undue hardship to the witness to be compelled to attend and testify in the prosecution or grand jury investigation in the other state, and that the laws of the state in which the prosecution is pending or in which there is a grand jury investigation will give to the witness protection from arrest and service of civil and criminal process and will furnish in advance to the witness the sum of ten cents ($0.10) for each mile necessarily traveled if the witness elects surface travel or the minimum round trip scheduled airline fare plus twenty cents ($0.20) a mile for necessary surface travel at either end of the flight if the witness elects air travel, and, except as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1334.3, a per diem of twenty dollars ($20) for each day that he or she is required to travel and attend as a witness and that the judge of the court in which the witness is ordered to appear will order the payment of witness fees authorized by law for each day the witness is required to attend the court plus reimbursement for any additional expenses of the witness which the judge of the court in which the witness is ordered to appear shall find reasonable and necessary, he or she shall issue a subpoena, with a copy of the certificate attached, directing the witness to attend and testify in the court where the prosecution is pending, or where the grand jury investigation is, at a time and place specified in the subpoena. In any of these hearings the certificate shall be prima facie evidence of all the facts stated therein. If the certificate recommends that the witness be taken into immediate custody and delivered to an officer of the requesting state to assure his or her attendance therein, the judge may, in lieu of notification of the hearing, direct that the witness be forthwith brought before him or her for the hearing. If the judge at the hearing is satisfied of the desirability of the custody and delivery, for which determination the certificate shall be prima facie proof of this desirability, he or she may, in lieu of issuing a subpoena, order that the witness be forthwith taken into custody and delivered to an officer of the requesting state. If the witness, who is subpoenaed as provided in this section, after being paid or tendered by some properly authorized person the sum or fare, and per diem set forth in this section, fails without good cause to attend and testify as directed in the subpoena, he or she shall be punished in the manner provided for the punishment of any witness who disobeys a subpoena issued from a court of record in this state.

California Penal Code 1328(d)

If the immediate superior or his or her designated agent upon whom service is attempted to be made knows he or she will be unable to deliver a copy of the subpoena to the peace officer within a time which will allow the peace officer to comply with the subpoena, the immediate superior or agent may refuse to accept service of process and is excused from any duty, liability, or penalty arising in connection with the service, upon notifying the server of that fact.

California Penal Coded 1329

(a) When a person attends before a magistrate, grand jury, or court, as a witness in a criminal case, whether upon a subpoena or in pursuance of an undertaking, or voluntarily, the court, at its discretion, if the attendance of the witness be upon a trial may by an order upon its minutes, or in any criminal proceeding, by a written order, direct the county auditor to draw his warrant upon the county treasurer in favor of such witness for witness' fees at the rate of twelve dollars ($12) for each day's actual attendance and for a reasonable sum to be specified in the order for the necessary expenses of such witness. The court, in its discretion, may make an allowance under this section, or under any appropriate section in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 68070), Title 8, of the Government Code, other than Section 68093. The allowances are county charges. (b) The court, in its discretion, may authorize payment to such a witness, if he is employed and if his salary is not paid by his employer during the time he is absent from his employment because of being such a witness, of a sum equal to his gross salary for such time, but such sum shall not exceed eighteen dollars ($18) per day. The sum is a county charge. A person compensated under the provisions of this subdivision may not receive the payment of witness' fees as provided for in subdivision (a).

California Penal Code 881

(a) If a witness, required to enter into an undertaking to appear and testify, either with or without sureties, refuses compliance with the order for that purpose, the magistrate shall commit him or her to prison until he or she complies or is legally discharged. (b) If a witness fails to appear at the preliminary hearing in response to a subpoena, the court may hear evidence, including testimony or an affidavit from the arresting or interviewing officer, and if the court determines on the basis of the evidence that the witness is a material witness, the court shall issue a bench warrant for the arrest of the witness, and upon the appearance of the witness, may commit him or her into custody until the conclusion of the preliminary hearing, or until the defendant enters a plea of nolo contendere, or the witness is otherwise legally discharged. The court may order the witness to enter into a written undertaking to the effect that he or she will appear and testify at the time and place ordered by the court or that he or she will forfeit an amount that the court deems proper. (c) Once the material witness has been taken into custody on the bench warrant he or she shall be brought before the magistrate issuing the warrant, if available, within two court days for a hearing to determine if the witness should be released on security of appearance or maintained in custody. (d) A material witness shall remain in custody under this section for no longer than 10 days. (e) If a material witness is being held in custody under this section the prosecution is entitled to have the preliminary hearing proceed, as to this witness only, within 10 days of the arraignment of the defendant. Once this material witness has completed his or her testimony the defendant shall be entitled to a reasonable continuance.

California Penal Code 980

(a) At any time after the order for a bench warrant is made, whether the court is sitting or not, the clerk may issue a bench warrant to one or more counties. (b) The clerk shall require the appropriate agency to enter each bench warrant issued on a private surety-bonded felony case into the national warrant system (National Crime Information Center (NCIC)). If the appropriate agency fails to enter the bench warrant into the national warrant system (NCIC), and the court finds that this failure prevented the surety or bond agent from surrendering the fugitive into custody, prevented the fugitive from being arrested or taken into custody, or resulted in the fugitive's subsequent release from custody, the court having jurisdiction over the bail shall, upon petition, set aside the forfeiture of the bond and declare all liability on the bail bond to be exonerated.

California Penal Code 1196

(a) The clerk must, at any time after the order, issue a bench warrant into one or more counties. (b) The clerk shall require the appropriate agency to enter each bench warrant issued on a private surety-bonded felony case into the national warrant system (National Crime Information Center (NCIC)). If the appropriate agency fails to enter the bench warrant into the national warrant system (NCIC), and the court finds that this failure prevented the surety or bond agent from surrendering the fugitive into custody, prevented the fugitive from being arrested or taken into custody, or resulted in the fugitive's subsequent release from custody, the court having jurisdiction over the bail shall, upon petition, set aside the forfeiture of the bond and declare all liability on the bail bond to be exonerated.

California Code of Civil Procedure 1993

(a)(1)As an alternative to issuing a warrant for contempt pursuant to paragraph (5) or (9) of subdivision (a) of Section 1209, the court may issue a warrant for the arrest of a witness who failed to appear pursuant to a subpoena or a person who failed to appear pursuant to a court order. The court, upon proof of the service of the subpoena or order, may issue a warrant to the sheriff of the county in which the witness or person may be located and the sheriff shall, upon payment of fees as provided for in Section 26744.5 of the Government Code, arrest the witness or person and bring him or her before the court.

The Law Office of Michael Rehm

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The Law Office of Michael Rehm is a DUI and Criminal Defense Law Office that practices throughout San Diego County. Michael Rehm is available for free, confidential consultations at (619) 787-3456.